API: An application programming interface (API) is a set of programming instructions and standards for accessing a web-based software application.

API call: A query by a third-party application to CargoChain.

App: A software program designed for end users.

Blockchain: A digital ledger in which cryptographically secured transactions are recorded chronologically. CargoChain is utilising blockchain as a trust mechanism to provide proof of a piece of cargo’s journey through the supply chain.

Cargo-centric: A solution that has cargo at the core. Where others have taken shipment, transport or container-centric approaches, which significantly narrow the relevance of the solutions being offered, CargoChain is cargo-centric. By focusing on the cargo – the reason the supply chain exists – CargoChain has been developed at the most granular level, making it relevant to everyone in the supply chain.

Cargo event: A cargo event occurs whenever information is added to a cargo profile. A full history of cargo events is hashed and pushed onto our blockchain when cargo transfers ownership.

Cargo profile: A cargo profile is a unique digital record created in CargoChain for each piece of cargo. All information relating to that piece of cargo, including cargo events is recorded in the cargo profile.

DApp: A decentralised application (DApp) has its backend code running on a decentralised peer-to-peer network. This is in contrast to an app where the backend code is running on centralised servers.

EDI: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a data exchange technology developed in the 1960s that allows the sharing of pre-agreed text information from point-to-point. This differs from the CargoChain Information Sharing Protocol where rich content can be shared end-to-end across a supply chain.

Hyperledger Fabric: The technology that will be used to expose our public blockchain.

IoT: The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the ever-growing network of physical objects that feature an IP address for internet connectivity, and the communication that occurs between these objects and other Internet-enabled devices and systems.

On-chain/Off-chain: On-chain transactions are transactions reflected on a public ledger, visible to all participants on the blockchain network. Off-chain transactions refer to transactions that do not happen on blockchain, typically due to their zero/ low cost.

Platform: A platform is a group of technologies that are used as a base upon which other applications, processes or technologies are developed. CargoChain is a cargo information sharing platform supporting the development of applications for the global supply chain.

Protocol: A specific set of communication rules that define a method of exchanging data over a computer network. CargoChain’s Information Sharing Protocol mirrors the physical transfer of cargo from one supply chain actor to another along the supply chain and establishes how data can be exchanged.

Provenance: The place of origin of an item and a record of ownership that can be used to prove authenticity and quality.

Reference data: A consolidated library of trusted, clean reference data. CargoChain’s cloud-based reference data repository forms the base of the Platform and allows for rapid content updates. Reference data sets incorporated include routes, vessels, commodities, location codes, and container ISO codes.

Rich content: CargoChain’s Information Sharing Protocol enables the sharing of structured or unstructured data including videos, images, documents and freeform text.

Sandbox: A software testing environment that enables the isolated execution of applications for independent evaluation, monitoring or testing.

SDK: A Software Development Kit (SDK) is a set of software development tools that allows the creation of applications.

Smart contract: A smart contract is a computer protocol that facilities the transfer of digital assets between parties under pre-agreed terms.

Stuffed/unstuffed: The loading and unloading of cargo into containers. CargoChain uses the parent and child concept, so any update to a container cargo profile will be inherited by the cargo inside the container.

Transaction: A transaction occurs when an application deployed on CargoChain makes an API call to the CargoChain database.

Visibility: The ability to determine where your cargo is along a supply chain. CargoChain goes further than track and trace visibility by also allowing users to determine the state of their cargo.